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Obstacle Avoider Robot with ATmega16 using Analog IR Sensor

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Obstacle avoidance is one of the most important aspects of mobile robotics. Without it robot movement would be very restrictive and fragile. Obstacle avoiding is a task which is used for detecting the objects placed in the path of your robot or any vehicle. So, to protect the robot from any physical damages. An obstacle avoiding robot is an intelligent device, which can automatically sense and overcome obstacles on its path.

In this project, we will learn How to design an obstacle avoider robot with AVR ATmega16 microcontroller using Analog IR Sensor. This robot is an automatic robot i.e no manual control is needed. This robot can detect obstacles from its three sides- front, left and right side. The robot changes its direction of movement, whenever it detects any obstacle in its path from any side. Here, we will use three analog IR sensors to detect obstacles from the three sides of the robot. The three sensors will be placed in the front side, left side and right side of the robot pointing towards their respective side. Whenever an obstacle comes in front of any sensor, there will be a change in the output of that particular analog IR sensor and this change will be detected by the ATmega16 microcontroller. But the outputs of the three analog IR sensors are analog in nature, so these signals cannot be processed directly by the microcontroller. For this, we will use the ADC of the ATmega16 microcontroller to convert the analog signals to digital values. After converting the analog signals of analog IR sensors to digital values, the ATmega16 microcontroller will compare the sensor values with a reference value i.e threshold value(3V in our case). According to the output of the above comparisons, the ATmega16 microcontroller will send the required control signal to the DC motor driver (L293D) of the robot to move the robot in forward, left or right direction. The above processes of ADC conversions, sensors output comparison and robot control continues forever till the power source is there.

Softwares Required

Hardwares Required

Name Quantity
AVR Trainer Board-100 with ATmega16 1pc
AVR USB Programmer 1pc
12V, 1A DC SMPS Adaptor 1pc
Analog IR Sensor 3pc
DC Motor Driver 1pc
Robot V 4.0 1pc
1 to 1 Connector-Female to Female 10pc
10 to 10 FRC Female to Female Connector 2pc

Circuit Diagram

Video

Connection Guide

The step-by-step connection guide for Obstacle Avoider Robot with ATmega16 using Analog IR Sensor is as follows

  • Steps - 1 ( 0f 11 )

    Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of AVR Trainer Board-100.

  • Steps - 2 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect PortB header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with Input header of DC Motor Driver with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

  • Steps - 3 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the 12V pin of PWM & Motor Voltage header of DC Motor Driver with the 12V header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with a 1 to 1 Connector.

  • Steps - 4 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the Robot connector to the Output header of the DC Motor Driver.

  • Steps - 5 ( 0f 11 )

    Switch off the Mode Switch of DC Motor Driver.

  • Steps - 6 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the VCC and GND pins of three Analog IR Sensor with 5V and GND header pins of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 connectors.

  • Steps - 7 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the O/P pins of left, front and right Analog IR Sensor with PA0, PA1 and PA2 pins of PortA header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 Connectors.

  • Steps - 8 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the ISP header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with AVR USB Programmer header of AVR USB Programmer with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

  • Steps - 9 ( 0f 11 )

    Connect the AVR USB Programmer to the PC/Laptop's USB Port directly or with the help of USB AM-AF Cable.

  • Steps - 10 ( 0f 11 )

    Download Obstacle Avoider Robot with ATmega16 using Analog IR Sensor Hex file to AVR Trainer Board-100 with the help of SinaProg Hex downloader and AVR USB Programmer.

  • Steps - 11 ( 0f 11 )

    Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of AVR Trainer Board-100 and see the output.

  • Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of AVR Trainer Board-100.

    Steps - 1 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect PortB header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with Input header of DC Motor Driver with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 2 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the 12V pin of PWM & Motor Voltage header of DC Motor Driver with the 12V header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with a 1 to 1 Connector.

    Steps - 3 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the Robot connector to the Output header of the DC Motor Driver.

    Steps - 4 ( 0f 11 )

  • Switch off the Mode Switch of DC Motor Driver.

    Steps - 5 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the VCC and GND pins of three Analog IR Sensor with 5V and GND header pins of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 connectors.

    Steps - 6 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the O/P pins of left, front and right Analog IR Sensor with PA0, PA1 and PA2 pins of PortA header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 Connectors.

    Steps - 7 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the ISP header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with AVR USB Programmer header of AVR USB Programmer with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 8 ( 0f 11 )

  • Connect the AVR USB Programmer to the PC/Laptop's USB Port directly or with the help of USB AM-AF Cable.

    Steps - 9 ( 0f 11 )

  • Download Obstacle Avoider Robot with ATmega16 using Analog IR Sensor Hex file to AVR Trainer Board-100 with the help of SinaProg Hex downloader and AVR USB Programmer.

    Steps - 10 ( 0f 11 )

  • Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of AVR Trainer Board-100 and see the output.

    Steps - 11 ( 0f 11 )

Downloads

Obstacle Avoider Robot with ATmega16 using Analog IR Sensor Project File
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Post a Comment

    • karansharma
      2017-12-03 11:29:40
      Reply
    • karansharma
      2017-12-03 11:30:57
      Reply