Light Follower Robot with ATmega16 using Analog Light Sensor
The light following robot is a mobile machine which is capable of detecting and following the light source on the travelling path. The concept of this light following robot is very simple. It includes two LDR sensors, one on the front and other on the back. When the light falls on the front LDR sensor, the robot will move in the forward direction. Similarly, the robot will move in the backward side when the light falls on the back LDR sensor.
In this project, we will learn How to design a light follower robot with AVR ATmega16 microcontroller using Analog light Sensor. This robot is an automatic robot i.e no manual control is needed. The robot will move either in forward direction or in backward direction depending on which direction intensity of light is more. Here, we will use two analog light sensors to measure the intensity of light. The two sensors will be placed in the front side and back side of the robot. When there is a change in intensity of light on any side of robot, the output of that particular side’s analog light sensor value changes and this change will be detected by the ATmega16 microcontroller. But the outputs of the two analog light sensors are analog in nature, so these signals cannot be processed directly by the microcontroller. For this, we will use the ADC of the ATmega16 microcontroller to convert the analog signals to digital values. After converting the analog signals of analog light sensors to digital values, the ATmega16 microcontroller will compare the sensor values with each other. If the front sensor value is less than back sensor value, the ATmega16 microcontroller will send the forward control signal to the DC motor driver (L293D) of the robot to move the robot in forward direction and if the back sensor value is less than front sensor value, the ATmega16 microcontroller will send the backward control signal to the DC motor driver (L293D) of the robot to move the robot in backward direction. The above processes of ADC conversions, sensors output comparison and robot control continues forever till the power source is there.
|AVR Trainer Board-100 with ATmega16
|AVR USB Programmer
|12V, 1A DC SMPS Adaptor
|Analog Light Sensor
|DC Motor Driver
|Robot V 4.1
|1 to 1 Connector-Female to Female
|10 to 10 FRC Female to Female Connector
The step-by-step connection guide for Light Follower Robot with ATmega16 using Analog Light Sensor is as follows
Steps - 1 ( 0f 11 )
Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of AVR Trainer Board-100.
Steps - 2 ( 0f 11 )
Connect PortB header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with Input header of DC Motor Driver with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.
Steps - 3 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the 12V pin of PWM & Motor Voltage header of DC Motor Driver with the 12V header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with a 1 to 1 Connector.
Steps - 4 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the Robot connector to the Output header of the DC Motor Driver.
Steps - 5 ( 0f 11 )
Switch off the Mode Switch of DC Motor Driver.
Steps - 6 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the VCC and GND pins of two Analog Light Sensor with 5V and GND header pins of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 connectors.
Steps - 7 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the O/P pins two Analog Light Sensor with PA0 and PA1 pins of PortA header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with 1 to 1 Connectors.
Steps - 8 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the ISP header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with AVR USB Programmer header of AVR USB Programmer with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.
Steps - 9 ( 0f 11 )
Connect the AVR USB Programmer to the PC/Laptop's USB Port directly or with the help of USB AM-AF Cable.
Steps - 10 ( 0f 11 )
Download Light Follower Robot with ATmega16 using Analog Light Sensor Hex file to AVR Trainer Board-100 with the help of SinaProg Hex downloader and AVR USB Programmer.
Steps - 11 ( 0f 11 )
Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of AVR Trainer Board-100 and see the output.