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Relay based PC Controlled Wireless Home Automation System with ATmega16 using 433MHz RF-I

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In this project, we will learn How to design a Relay based PC Controlled Wireless Home Automation System with AVR ATmega16 microcontroller using 433MHz RF Part-I. Here, we will use the PC keyboard as the input device to control the appliances i.e 2 bulbs and 2 fans and we will display the status of each appliance in the PC.

PC will send the control signal(ASCII value of pressed key value) to the ATmega16 microcontroller through its serial port. But current generation PCs and Laptops do not have serial port in them, so we will use one USB to Serial converter cable which will create a virtual serial port in the PC /Laptop. Again, the output of USB to Serial cable can not be connected to microcontroller directly as the output voltage of USB to Serial Cable corresponds to RS-232 level. But the ATmega16 microcontroller needs TTL/CMOS voltage levels. For this, we will use MAX-232 voltage converter which will convert RS-232 voltage level to TTL one and vice-versa.

The ATmega16 microcontroller will read the serial output of MAX-232 through its USART and it will process it to know which key of the PC keyboard is pressed. After knowing which key of the PC keyboard is pressed, the ATmega16 microcontroller will send the required 4 bit signal to the HT12E encoder of RF transmitter circuit. The HT12E will encode the 8 bit address and 4 bit data given to it and then it will transmit the encoded signal serially to the RF module. The RF module will transmit the encoded data and address wirelessly.

At the receiver end, the RF receiver module will receive the encoded 4 bit data and 8 bit address. Then, it will transmit the encoded signal serially to the HT12D decoder which will decode the received signal to 8 bit address and 4 bit data. After decoding, the HT12D will compare the received 8 bit address with its local 8 bit address. If the received address and the local address are same, then the received 4 bit data is sent to its output pins else the received data is discarded. The 4 bit output of HT12D is sent to the Quad Relay Driver to turn on and off appliances.

Here, we will use 2 keys of the Keyboard to control one appliance. One key will be used to turn on and the other key will be used to turn off the appliance. So, for four appliances, we will use 8 keys of the keyboard. Apart from these 8 keys, we will use 2 more keys to turn on and off all appliances at a time. Now, press different keys from the PC and control the appliances as you want.

Control Keys

Appliance Status Change

1

Appliance 1 On

2

Appliance 1 Off

3

Appliance 2 On

4

Appliance 2 Off

5

Appliance 3 On

6

Appliance 3 Off

7

Appliance 4 On

8

Appliance 4 Off

9

All Appliances On

0

All Appliances Off

 

Softwares Required

Hardwares Required

Name / Unit Price Quantity Total Price
AVR Trainer Board-100 with ATmega16
Rs. 700.00
1pc
Rs.700.00
AVR USB Programmer
Rs. 350.00
1pc
Rs.350.00
12V, 1A DC SMPS Adaptor
Rs. 130.00
2pc
Rs.260.00
Quad Relay Driver
Rs. 250.00
1pc
Rs.250.00
RS-232 Driver Board
Rs. 200.00
1pc
Rs.200.00
433MHz RF Transmitter & Receiver Board
Rs. 450.00
1pc
Rs.450.00
Power Supply Board
Rs. 200.00
1pc
Rs.200.00
Home Appliance Board
Rs. 1300.00
1pc
Rs.1300.00
USB to Serial Cable-Y-105
Rs. 350.00
1pc
Rs.350.00
1 to 1 Connector-Female to Female
Rs. 4.00
6pc
Rs.24.00
10 to 10 FRC Female to Female Connector
Rs. 15.00
2pc
Rs.30.00
TOTAL Rs.4114.00

Circuit Diagram

Relay-based-PC-Controlled-Wireless-Home-Appliances-System-with-AVR-ATmega16-Microcontroller-using-433MHz-RF-I-Receiver-Circuit-Diagram-996x1024

Video

Connection Guide

The step-by-step connection guide for Relay based PC Controlled Wireless Home Automation System with ATmega16 using 433MHz RF-I is as follows:

  • Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of AVR Trainer Board-100.

    Steps - 1 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect PortB header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with RF Transmitter header of RF Transmitter Board with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 2 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the TE bar pin and GND of RF Transmitter Jumper header with a jumper.

    Steps - 3 ( 0f 19 )

  • Set the address of RF Transmitter to 0x00 with the help of 8 way DIP switch in RF Transmitter Board.

    Steps - 4 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect USB side of USB to Serial Cable to PC USB port and the other side to DB-9 connector of RS-232 Driver.

    Steps - 5 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect PortD header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with RS-232 header of RS-232 Driver with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 6 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the ISP header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with AVR USB Programmer header of AVR USB Programmer with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 7 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the AVR USB Programmer to the PC/Laptop's USB Port directly or with the help of USB AM-AF Cable.

    Steps - 8 ( 0f 19 )

  • Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of AVR Trainer Board-100.

    Steps - 9 ( 0f 19 )

  • Download the Relay based PC Controlled Wireless Home Automation System with ATmega16 using 433 MHz RF-I Hex file to AVR Trainer Board-100 with the help of SinaProg Hex downloader and AVR USB Programmer.

    Steps - 10 ( 0f 19 )

  • Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of Power Supply Board.

    Steps - 11 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the 12V and GND pins of Relay Control header of Quad Relay Driver with the 12V and GND pins of 12V and GND header of Power Supply Board with 1 to 1 Connectors.

    Steps - 12 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the A1, A2, A3 and A4 pins of Relay Control header of Quad Relay Driver with D8, D9, D10 and D11 pins of RF Receiver header of RF Receiver Board respectively with 1 to 1 Connectors.

    Steps - 13 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Neutral and Phase of AC Supply from Wall to N and PH of AC Input Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver with wires.

    Steps - 14 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Neutrals of 2 Bulbs and 2 Fans to the N pin of AC Output Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver with wires.

    Steps - 15 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Phases of 2 Bulbs and 2 Fans to the PH1, PH2, PH3 and PH4 pins of AC Output Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver respectively with wires.

    Steps - 16 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the 5V and GND pins of 5V header and GND header of Power Supply Board to VCC and GND pins of RF Receiver header of RF Receiver Board with 1 to 1 Female Connectors.

    Steps - 17 ( 0f 19 )

  • Set the address of RF Receiver to 0x00 with the help of 8 way DIP switch in RF Receiver Board.

    Steps - 18 ( 0f 19 )

  • Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of Power Supply Board.

    Steps - 19 ( 0f 19 )

  • Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of AVR Trainer Board-100.

    Steps - 1 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect PortB header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with RF Transmitter header of RF Transmitter Board with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 2 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the TE bar pin and GND of RF Transmitter Jumper header with a jumper.

    Steps - 3 ( 0f 19 )

  • Set the address of RF Transmitter to 0x00 with the help of 8 way DIP switch in RF Transmitter Board.

    Steps - 4 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect USB side of USB to Serial Cable to PC USB port and the other side to DB-9 connector of RS-232 Driver.

    Steps - 5 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect PortD header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with RS-232 header of RS-232 Driver with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 6 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the ISP header of AVR Trainer Board-100 with AVR USB Programmer header of AVR USB Programmer with a 10 to 10 FRC Female Connector.

    Steps - 7 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the AVR USB Programmer to the PC/Laptop's USB Port directly or with the help of USB AM-AF Cable.

    Steps - 8 ( 0f 19 )

  • Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of AVR Trainer Board-100.

    Steps - 9 ( 0f 19 )

  • Download the Relay based PC Controlled Wireless Home Automation System with ATmega16 using 433 MHz RF-I Hex file to AVR Trainer Board-100 with the help of SinaProg Hex downloader and AVR USB Programmer.

    Steps - 10 ( 0f 19 )

  • Insert the DC Pin of 12V, 1A DC Adapter to the DC Socket of Power Supply Board.

    Steps - 11 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the 12V and GND pins of Relay Control header of Quad Relay Driver with the 12V and GND pins of 12V and GND header of Power Supply Board with 1 to 1 Connectors.

    Steps - 12 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the A1, A2, A3 and A4 pins of Relay Control header of Quad Relay Driver with D8, D9, D10 and D11 pins of RF Receiver header of RF Receiver Board respectively with 1 to 1 Connectors.

    Steps - 13 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Neutral and Phase of AC Supply from Wall to N and PH of AC Input Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver with wires.

    Steps - 14 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Neutrals of 2 Bulbs and 2 Fans to the N pin of AC Output Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver with wires.

    Steps - 15 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the Phases of 2 Bulbs and 2 Fans to the PH1, PH2, PH3 and PH4 pins of AC Output Terminal Blocks of Quad Relay Driver respectively with wires.

    Steps - 16 ( 0f 19 )

  • Connect the 5V and GND pins of 5V header and GND header of Power Supply Board to VCC and GND pins of RF Receiver header of RF Receiver Board with 1 to 1 Female Connectors.

    Steps - 17 ( 0f 19 )

  • Set the address of RF Receiver to 0x00 with the help of 8 way DIP switch in RF Receiver Board.

    Steps - 18 ( 0f 19 )

  • Switch on the power with the help of Power Switch of Power Supply Board.

    Steps - 19 ( 0f 19 )

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